Preprint / Version 1

An Overview on Drug Evolution and Trials on Pandemic COVID-19 Infection


  • Munendra Mohan Varshney Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology (Pharmacy), Ghaziabad
  • Avantika Sharma Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology (Pharmacy), Ghaziabad



The disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV2) is highly pathogenic and communicable infection, progressed in Wuhan city of China and then around the world. The Genomic investigations shows that phylogenetically SARS-CoV2 resembles the other SARS-like bat viruses, therefore bats were also considered as the possible potential reservoir for SARS-CoV2. COVID-19 pandemic has presented considerable challenges to public health care system at global scale. Novel COVID-19 virus is member of corona Viridae family. Drug evolution and alternative therapy has come in the focus prominently in the treatment of COVID-19 infection. Although, clinical trials, also be in faster rate in all over the world. A number of drugs which were previously used against SARS-CoV-2 infection such as Remdesevir, Lopinavir, Ritonavir, Interferon beta-1b and Ribavirin, but they are being tested in randomised trials and show less prominent effects. In the review we summarized the latest research progress nationally and internationally on treatment and clinical trials of COVID-19 pandemics.


COVID-19, Plasma Therapy, Clinical trials


Download data is not yet available.


Wu JT, Leung K, Bushman M, Kishore N, Niehus R, de Salazar PM, et al. “Estimating clinical severity of COVID-19 from the transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China. Nat Med 2020”. Available:

Wang N, Shi X, Jiang L, Zhang S, Wang D, Tong P, et al. “Structure of MERS-CoV spike receptor-binding domain complexed with human receptor DPP4”, Cell Res 2013;23(8): 986e93. Available:

Balaji Krishnakumar, Sravendra Rana, “COVID 19 in INDIA: Strategies to combat from combination threat of life and livelihood”, Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, 2020.

World health organization (2019). Corona virus disease situation report. Available: research-on-novel-coronavirus-2019

Andrea cortegiani, Giulia lingolia et al, “A systemic review on the efficacy and safety of chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19”, Journal of Critical Care, vol. 5, p.134, 2020.

Our World in Data. Total and daily confirmed COVID-19 cases, India. 2020. Available:,country=IND (accessed April 8, 2020).

National Taskforce for COVID-19. Advisory on the use of hydroxy-chloroquine as prophylaxis for SARS-CoV-2 infection. 2020. Available: https://www. advisory on the use of Hydrox chloroquinasprophylaxisforSARSCoV2infection.

De Wit E, Feldmann F, Cronin J, et al.”Prophylactic and therapeutic remdesivir (GS-5734) treatment in the rhesus macaque model of MERS-CoV infection”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol. 117, pp. 6771-6, 2020.

Condition COVID-19, Available:

Gouglas D, Thanh Le T, Henderson K, et al. “Estimating the cost of vaccine development against epidemic infectious diseases: a cost minimisation study. Lancet Glob Health”, Vol 6(12), pp. 1386-96, 2018.

Diana M, Joseph. B “COVID-19 pandemic: the origin, transmission, pathogenesis and therapeutic application”, AIJR Preprints, 161, version 1, 2020.

solidarilty clinical trials for COVID-19, Available:

Jaimy Lee, “these 23 companies are working on coronavirus treatments or vaccine-here where things stand” May, 2020, Available:

Coronavirus-seven Indian pharmaplayers in race to develop COVID-19 vaccine, available:

Lai ST. “Treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome”. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, vol. 24, pp. 583-91, 2005.

Arabi Y, Balkhy H, Hajeer AH. “Feasibility, safety, clinical, and laboratory effects of convalescent plasma therapy for patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection: a study protocol” Springerplus, vol. 4, p. 709, 2015.

Kai Duana, B,L, Bende Liuc,1, Cesheng Lid, et al. “Effectiveness of convalescent plasma therapy in severe COVID-19 patients”, PNAS, vol. 117(17), pp. 9490-9496, 2020.

Chatterjee K, Chatterjee K, Kumar A, Shankar S. “Healthcare impact of COVID-19 epidemic in India: a stochastic mathematical model”. Med J Armed Forces India. 2020. Available:

Amit.L, “addressing COVID-19 immune strom: A way Forward” AIJR Preprints, 163, version. 1, 2020.

Kennedy SB, Neaton JD, Lane HC, et al. “Implementation of an Ebola virus disease vaccine clinical trial during the Ebola epidemic in Liberia: design, procedures, and challenges”. ClinTrials, vol. 13, pp. 49-56, 2016.

Samai M, Seward JF, Goldstein ST, et al. “The Sierra Leone trial to introduce a vaccine against Ebola: an evaluation of rVSV?G-ZEBOV-GP vaccine tolerability and safety during the West Africa Ebola outbreak”. J Infect Dis, vol. S6-S15, P. 217, 2018.

The PREVAIL II Writing Group for the Multi-National PREVAIL II Study Team. A randomized, controlled trial of ZMapp for Ebola virus infection. N Engl J Med, vol.375, pp. 1448-56, 2016.

Natalie E. Dean, Ph.D., Pierre Stephane Gsell et al, “Creating a Framework for Conducting Randomized Clinical Trials during Disease Outbreaks”, the new journal of medicine, 2020.

Strove. J, Sittampalam. S et al, “Early drug discovery and development guidelines for academic researchers, collaboration and start-up companies”, Assay guidance manual. Eli Lilly And Company, PMID 22553881, 2016.

Wu Z, Mc, Gaogan M, “ charecteristicts of and important lesson from the coronaviruses disease 2019 (COVID-19)cutbreak in china: summery of a report of 72314 cases” The Chinese centerfor disease control and prevention jama 2020, Available:

Mustafa. I. Mustafa, Abdelrahman. H, et al, “Immunoinformatics patterns and characteristics of epitope-based peptide vaccine candidates against COVID-19” AIJR Preprints, 164, version. 2, 2020.

Sayed. Ali. R, Shah. A et al, “Key Features of SARS-CoV-2 and Available Therapies for COVID-19” AIJR Preprints, 90, version. 1, 2020.