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COVID-19 Pathophysiology and Clinical Effects on Multiple Organ Systems

A Review


  • Kinal Bhatt Larkin Community Hospital
  • Jonathan Quinonez The Haley Center, Winter Haven, FL, USA
  • Abhinav Patel Terna Medical College, Navi Mumbai
  • Mehrie H Patel Pramukhswami Medical College, Gujarat
  • Abdifitah Mohamed Shendi University
  • Muhammad Ali Aziz King Edward Medical University
  • Deepa Venkataramani Aureus University School of Medicine
  • Fatema Zohora ZH Sikder Medical College
  • Namrata Hange National University of Singapore
  • Dana Awad Damascus University
  • Isha Mehta Windsor University School of Medicine
  • Paz Ines M Domingo University of the East Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center
  • Nadia Jamil Sargodha Medical College
  • Shravika Reddy Kandi Malla Reddy Institute of Medical Sciences
  • Sindhu Thevuthasan Medical University of the America, Camps, St. Kitts & Nevis
  • Uzzam Ahmed Khawaja Jinnah Medical and Dental College, Abbottabad
  • Dhanya Baskaran Division of Clinical & Translational Research, Larkin Health System, South Miami, FL
  • LaShathan Banks Larkin Community Hospital, South Miami, FL
  • George Michel Larkin Community Hospital, South Miami, FL
  • Marcos Sanchez-Gonzalez Division of Clinical & Translational Research, Larkin Health System, South Miami, FL


Patients with comorbidities including Hypertension (HTN), Diabetes Mellitus (DM), Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Asthma, Obesity, Cardiovascular Disease (CVD), Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), and those who are immunocompromised are prone to more severe complications of COVID-19 and a higher rate of hospitalizations. In the United States, around 94% of COVID-19 deaths had an average of 2.6 additional conditions or causes per death. In a summary report published by the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention of 72,314 cases, case-fatality rate was elevated among those with preexisting comorbid conditions—10.5% for cardiovascular disease, 7.3% for diabetes, 6.3% for chronic respiratory disease, 6.0% for HTN, and 5.6% for cancer. The COVID-19 pandemic continues to threaten people and healthcare systems globally and therefore the global economy. Currently, there is no cure or vaccine for COVID-19 and there is an urgent need to develop target therapies as we continue to learn more about this novel virus. Without therapeutic interventions, much of how we contain the viral spread is prevention through mitigation strategies (social distancing, face masks, supportive care). Early suspicion of COVID-19 symptoms with radiological and laboratory assessments may play a major role in preventing severity of the COVID-19. With this literature review we aim to provide review of pathophysiology of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its clinical effects on multiple organ systems.


COVID-19, pathophysiology, clinical effects


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