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Distribution and Threats of Rufous-necked Hornbill (Aceros nipalensis) in Bhutan



Hornbills (Bucerolidae) have a huge bill with a casque on upper mandible in some species. The casque is smaller in female in some species. Rufous-necked Hornbill (Aceros nipalensis), which belongs to Bucerolidae family, is a big bird measuring 90-100 cm long, with around 150 cm wingspan and weighing somewhat between a and 4 kg (4.4 to 8.8 lb). They are found in the Indian Subcontinent, East Asia and Southeast Asia. It is listed as Vulnerable in IUCN Red List, Appendix II of CITES and Schedule I (totally protected wild animals) species in Forest and Nature Conservation Act of Bhutan, 1995. It has high forest dependency and is mostly found between the altitude of 150 and 2,200 meters. Rufous-necked Hornbill mostly feeds on berries, drupes, fruits of Lauraceae spp., Moraceae spp., Annonaceae spp. and Meliaceae spp. In Bhutan, Rufous-necked Hornbill is reported from Samtse, Chhukha, Trashigang, Zhemgang, Monggar, Samdrup Jongkhar, Sarpang Districts, along Punatshang Chhu, and mostly from Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks. Though being vulnerable in nature and ecologically important species, it is poorly studied and documented in Bhutan. Therefore, this paper aimed to review published secondary sources related to Rufous-necked Hornbill in Bhutan. The result showed that there were no illegal killings of species in Bhutan. Habitats are threatened because of timber extraction, road construction, clearing of forest for power transmission lines and dying of nest trees.


Bucerotidae, Habitat loss, Vulnerable, Hornbill


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