Review About Using Limited Organic Wastes in Composting
Comparison Between Few Numbers of the Parameters and the Concentrations of Heavy Metals and NPK Nutrients
This paper reviewed studies about the composting process of different types of organic wastes. These wastes can be produced from different sources such as kitchen waste, Municipal solid waste (MSW), human waste, animal waste, agricultural waste, sewage waste, and slaughterhouse waste. The improper management of these wastes can lead to many environmental problems. These wastes can be disposed be many methods, but the best method we can use to overcome these environmental problems is composting because its cheap, effective in organic wastes decomposition. Composting process can be used to degrade all kinds of organic wastes without any exception such as plants, vegetables, fruits, and others. The product (compost) has many uses such as soil conditioner, nutrients for crops, and can be used as contributor in environmental management. However, there are many factors that affect the quality and the efficiency of the compost, which are pH, temperature, moisture content and carbon nitrogen ratio (C:N ratio). By the way using different types of organic wastes means different types and concentrations of heavy metals and different concentrations of the main and the most common macro nutrients exist in fertilizers (N, P, K). The presence of heave metals gives an indication of the most suitable way that we can use to add compost to soil without any negative effect.
Keywords:Composting, Organic Wastes, Biodegradable Wastes
A. A. Kadir, N. W. Azhari, and S. N. Jamaludin, “An overview of organic waste in composting,” MATEC Web Conf., vol. 47, pp. 0–5, 2016, doi: 10.1051/matecconf/20164705025.
E. Walling, A. Trémier, and C. Vaneeckhaute, “A review of mathematical models for composting,” Waste Manag., vol. 113, pp. 379–394, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2020.06.018.
R. V. Misra, R. N. Roy, and H. Hiraoka, “On-farm Composting Methods,” L. Water Discuss. Pap., vol. 2, no. 9, p. 51, 2003.
F. Obi, B. Ugwuishiwu, and J. Nwakaire, “Agricultural Waste Concept, Generation, Utilization and Management,” Niger. J. Technol., vol. 35, no. 4, p. 957, 2016, doi: 10.4314/njt.v35i4.34.
T. R. Abu-zahra, R. A. Ta’any, and A. R. Arabiyyat, “Changes in compost physical and chemical properties during aerobic decomposition,” Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci., vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 479–486, 2014.
T. Janakiram and K. Sridevi, “Conversion of waste into wealth: A study in solid waste management,” E-Journal Chem., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 1340–1345, 2010, doi: 10.1155/2010/549185.
T. Karak, P. Bhattacharyya, R. K. Paul, T. Das, and S. K. Saha, “Evaluation of Composts from Agricultural Wastes with Fish Pond Sediment as Bulking Agent to Improve Compost Quality,” Clean - Soil, Air, Water, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 711–723, 2013, doi: 10.1002/clen.201200142.
L. Zhang et al., “Impacts of iron oxide nanoparticles on organic matter degradation and microbial enzyme activities during agricultural waste composting,” Waste Manag., vol. 95, pp. 289–297, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2019.06.025.
U. Pangnakorn, “Valuable added the agricultural waste for farmers using in organic farming groups in Phitsanulok, Thailand,” no. January, pp. 13–16, 2006, [Online]. Available: http://www.tropentag.de/2006/abstracts/full/260.pdf.
E. I. Arslan, A. Ünlü, and M. Topal, “Determination of the Effect of Aeration Rate on Composting of Vegetable-Fruit Wastes,” Clean - Soil, Air, Water, vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 1014–1021, 2011, doi: 10.1002/clen.201000537.
S. P. Gautam, P. S. Bundela, A. K. Pandey, and S. Sarsaiya, “Composting of Municipal Solid Waste of Jabalpur City Central Pollution Control Board , New Delhi , India,” vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 43–46, 2010.
A. K. Pathak et al., “Assessment of physico- chemical properties and microbial community during composting of municipal solid waste ( Viz . KItchen waste ) at Jhansi City , U . P . ( India ),” Recent Res. Sci. Technol., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 10–14, 2012.
P. Kosobucki, A. Chmarzy?ski, and B. Buszewski, “Sewage Sludge Composting,” Polish J. Environ. Stud., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 243–248, 2000.
J. W. C. Wong and M. Fang, “Effects of lime addition on sewage sludge composting process,” Water Res., vol. 34, no. 15, pp. 3691–3698, 2000, doi: 10.1016/S0043-1354(00)00116-0.
R. Yañez, J. L. Alonso, and M. J. Díaz, “Influence of bulking agent on sewage sludge composting process,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 100, no. 23, pp. 5827–5833, 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.05.073.
Y. Liu, L. Ma, Y. Li, and L. Zheng, “Evolution of heavy metal speciation during the aerobic composting process of sewage sludge,” Chemosphere, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 1025–1032, 2007, doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.10.056.
S. Amir, M. Hafidi, G. Merlina, and J. C. Revel, “Sequential extraction of heavy metals during composting of sewage sludge,” Chemosphere, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 801–810, 2005, doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.11.016.
Copyright (c) 2022 Hammam Riyad Al-Eiadeh
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Any non-commercial use, distribution, adaptation, and reproduction in any medium is permitted as long as the original work is properly cited. However, caution and responsibility are required when reusing as the articles on the preprint server are not peer-reviewed. Readers are advised to check for the availability of any updated or peer-reviewed version.